AXIS performs all types of Utilization and Peer Review, including Precertification, Concurrent Review, Retrospective Review, Appeals for Reconsideration, and Specialty Match Final Determinations. Resources used for review criteria include The Medical Disability Advisor, Milliman and Robertson Healthcare Guidelines, and The Clinical Practice Parameter for Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Input from our panel of physicians is also utilized, and continuous quality improvement measures are ongoing in an effort to assure that fair, unbiased opinions and determinations are rendered in a timely manner.